International Child Abduction in the Framework of the Hague Conference on Private International Law
Keywords:International child abduction, The Hague Conference on Private International Law, Custody rights, International family mediation
The prevailing pattern of child abduction has changed in the current era, and is no longer limited to the local borders of states but is taking an international turn, and the most accurate legal use of the term international child abduction originates in the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, which considers-as the naming of the convention suggests - In cases of kidnapping from the point of view of private international law, the essence of it is a bitter dispute over custody rights that develops to the point of abducting children across borders, to try to obtain custody of the child in another country, so that the snap here is a family member and most often a parent, as it causes many legal consequences and a traumatic impact on the abducted child, who is in a situation where he is struggling with a range of emotions. In line with the above, this research clarifies what it means to kidnap a child by a family member by analyzing the concept of international child abduction in the first research, while in the second section we will show the available mechanisms to combat it.
أولاً: الرسائل الجامعية
i. حوراء عبد الرزاق محسن، أثر حقوق الإنسان في تحديد القانون الواجب التطبيق على مسائل الاحوال الشخصية، رسالة ماجستير، كلية القانون، جامعة بغداد، بغداد، 2021.
ثانياً: الاتفاقيات الدولية
i. اتفاقية لاهاي المتعلقة بالجوانب المدنية للاختطاف الدولي للأطفال 1980، اِعتمدتها الدول الأعضاء لمؤتمر لاهاي في 24 تشرين الأول1980، ودخلت الاتفاقية حيز التنفيذ في 1 كانون الأول 1983.
ثالثاً: المواقع الالكترونية
i. دليل الممارسات السليمة بموجب اتفاقية لاهاي 25 أكتوبر 1980 الخاصة بالجوانب المدنية للاختطاف الدولي للطفل – الوساطة ، تم نشره من قبل مؤتمر لاهاي للقانون الدولي الخاص ، 2012، متاح على شبكة الانترنت https://www.hcch.net/en/publications-and-studies/details4/?pid=6475
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ثانياً: الأطاريح والرسائل الجامعية
i. Çisem Güler, Uluslararası Çocuk Kaçırmanın Hukuki Veçhelerine Dair Lahey Sözleşmesine Göre Çocugun iadesi Talebinin Reddi Nedenleri, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Özel Hukuk Anabilim Dalı, Ankara Üniversitesi, Türkiye, 2021.
ii. Faruk Kerem Giray, Kaçırılan veya Alıkonan Çocukların İadesi, Doktora Tezi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Özel Hukuk Anabilim Dalı, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Türkiye, 2007.
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v. Sara Mauser, Uporaba mediacije Pri mednarodni Ugrabitvi otrok, magistrsko delo, Pravna fakulteta, Univerza v Ljubljani, Slovenij, 2017.
ثالثاً: البحوث القانونية
i. Adair Dyer, The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction- towards global cooperation Its successes and failures, lnternational Journal of Children's Rights, Volume 1, 1993.
ii. Allison M. Scott, From a State-Centerom a State-Centered Appred Approach to Transnational Openness: Adapting the Hague Convention with Contemporary Human Rights Standards as Codified in the Convention of the Rights of the Child, Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, Volume 11, Issue 2, 2004.
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v. Blake Sherer, Comment: The Maturation of International Child Abduction Law from the Hague Convention to the Uniform Child Abduction Prevention Act, Journal of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers, Volume 26, Issue 1, 2013.
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vii. Ebru Akduman, Uluslararası Çocuk Kaçırmanın Hukuki Yönlerine Dair Lahey Sözleşmesi Uyarınca Koruma ve Ziyaret Hakkı, Public and Private International Law Bulletin, Cilt 40, Sayı 2, 2020.
viii. Günseli Öztekin Gelgel, devletler özel hukukunda velayet çocuk kaçırmalarıevlat edinmeye İlişkin Problemler, İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, Sayı:8, 2005.
ix. Kisch Beevers and Javier Perez Milla, Child abduction: convention " rights of custody"- who decides? an Anglo-Spanish perspective, Journal of Private International Law, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2007.
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رابعاً: الأدلة والتقارير التوضيحية
i. Elisa Pérez-Vera, Explanatory Report of the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, Published by The Hague Conference on Private International Law, 1981.
ii. Guide to Good Practices under the Hague Convention of 25 October 1980 Relating to the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, Part II - Implementing Measures, Published by Family Law, of the Hague Conference on Private International Law, 2003.
iii. Guide to Good Practice under the Hague Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction Part III – Preventive Measures, Published by Family Law For the Hague Conference on Private International Law, 2005.
iv. Guide to Good Practice under The Hague Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, Part IV - Enforcement, Published by Family Law For the Hague Conference on Private International Law, 2010.
v. Guide to Good Practice under the Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction Part VI Article 13(1)(b), Published by The Hague Conference on Private International Law, 2020.
i. Re  EWHC 834 (Fam) (31 March 2020) https://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWHC/Fam/2020/834.html
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